The principal winter food items of red and sika deer were Euonymus spp. 3) Understories were dominated by conifers like Tsuga and Abies at YT2 and SA 2. The sika deer is regarded as sacred in Japan. Additionally, deciduous forests were logged and coniferous trees, such as Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa, were intensively planted during the 1960s and the 1970s (Agetsuma 2007). With many people avoiding large public gathering spaces such as parks, as well as a drop in tourism in general, the deer are now desperately traveling further away from the park in search of food. In August, the mean proportion of dwarf bamboo in YT 1 samples was 55.4%, which was significantly greater than in YT 2 samples (0.1%; Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 23.079, p = 0.000; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = 3.963, p = 0.000) and YT 3 samples (0.2%; t2 = 3.862, p = 0.000; Fig. In November, SA 2 samples had more crude protein than SA 1 samples (Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 32.559, p = 0.000; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –5.410, p = 0.000), but no difference was found between SA 2 and SA 3 samples (t2 = –2.003, p = 0.112). The proportion of culms was not different between SA 1 (25.6%) and SA 2 samples (25.0%, Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 1.235, p = 0.539; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = 0.416, p = 0.909), but SA 2 samples had significantly more culms than SA 3 samples (10.0%, t2 = 2.837, p = 0.013). Fax: (410) 267-5777, © 2021 Chesapeake Bay Program All Rights Reserved As a result they seem to do very well finding enough to survive on. There have been two case studies on the variation in sika deer diet with elevation. Since little is known regarding the effects of deer grazing in the alpine zone of central Japan (but see Nagaike 2012, Watanabe et al. 3 (see Supplementary material Appendix 1 Table A1 for other foods). Diet Sitka deer primarily eat green vegetation. The sika deer has no natural predators in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, but humans will often hunt them for their meat. 3). Cervus (Latin) a stag, deer. Regarding culms, the proportion tended to be greater at higher elevations zones (Fig. Sitka deer have no upper incisors, and digest vegetation through grinding plant material between their upper and lower molars. 2011, Tamura 2013). Goyo, northern Honshu (the main island of Japan), were studied.Among 88 plant species found in surveys, 36 species (40.9%) were eaten by the deer. The proportion of grasses in YT 2 samples (49.5%) was higher than that in YT 1 samples (15.4%, Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 21.263, p = 0.000; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –3.780, p = 0.000), but the proportions in YT 2 and YT 3 samples (56.4%) were not significantly different (χ2 = –2.041, p = 0.103). Thus, there was no consistent seasonal change in fecal crude protein. The objective of this study was to characterize the botanical compositions and crude protein contents of the feces of sika deer according to elevation in central Japan. Despite these negative environmental factors, the alpine zone seems to provide high-quality forage. Dicots increased in YT 1 and SA 2 samples from August to November, but did not change at other sites. Crude protein contents were higher at higher zones (15–20%) than at lower zones (8–12%) in both study areas. A sika deer's diet can include any of the following: marsh grasses, fallen leaves, trees, brushy vegetation, herbs, fungi, bamboo, ground ferns, poison ivy, soy beans, and corn depending on environmental conditions (Feldhamer 1980). SA (the summit: 35°45′N, 138°14′E) is situated in the southeastern part of Nagano Prefecture, bordering the Yamanashi and Shizuoka Prefectures (Fig. 1) Dwarf bamboos were predominant in the feces at YT 1. YT 1: Sasa borealis, a dwarf bamboo, was abundant, YT 2: undergrowth was poor, YT 3: Siberian dwarf pine shrubs were dominant, SA 1: forbs and browses grew, SA 2: understory was poor, SA 3: Siberian dwarf pine shrubs and alpine meadow grew. 1). 5); the pattern was similar in November (YT 1–YT 2: Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 31.699, p = 0.000; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –2.629, p = 0.023; YT 2–YT 3: t2 = 4.060, p = 0.000). They eat what is easily accessible. The sika deer is a small, brown elk that lives in quiet marshes and forested wetlands on the lower Eastern Shore of Maryland. I had sika … No studies on dietary habits of alpine deer in mainland Japan have been conducted. 2012). The proportion of grasses in YT 2 samples (47.3%) was significantly higher than that in YT 1 samples (22.7%, Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 18.324, p = 0.000; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –3.275, p = 0.003), but there was no significant difference between YT 2 and YT 3 samples (54.1%; t2 = –1.471, p = 0.305). During the warmer months they eat nuts, corn and acorns -- and a lot more green matter. On average, sika deer live 15 to 18 years in the wild. 2), with a coniferous Abies veitchii–Abies mariesi forest at SA 2 in the subalpine zone, and dwarf pine shrubs and alpine meadows at SA 3 in the alpine zone (Chubu Forest Management Office 2007). The mean temperature in November at the foothill of YT ranges from –0.1°C in February to 24.8°C in August, and the mean annual precipitation is 1440 mm. An institutional or society member subscription is required to view non-Open Access content. Sika deer, the graceful spotted deer of Japanese and Chinese art, originally were native to Asia from far-east Russia to Vietnam to the islands of Japan and Taiwan. Error bars indicate SD. Since only Siberian dwarf pine Pinus pumila shrubs and alpine meadows dominated by Calamagrostis hakonensis, Veratrum album and Potentilla matsumurae grew in the alpine zones (Chubu Forest Management Office 2010), the landscape is open, which is less preferred by sika deer (Takatsuki 1989b). Please note that a BioOne web account does not automatically grant access to full-text content. However, some have been known to live up to 25 years in captivity. This content is available for download via your institution's subscription. Get the latest updates on our work delivered to your inbox. Funding – This study was partly supported by Natural Parks Foundation (Volunteer Fund for Nature Conservation 2011). 3). It may explain the reason of the recent invasion of the sika deer to the alpine zone. They were analyzed using the Kjaldahl method (Kjeltec 2100 distillation unit). Sike deer have a varied diet, which they adapt to their environment. Previous studies have suggested that although they are an exotic species, sika deer are not considered invasive because they do not directly compete with native wildlife for food and habitat. You will have access to both the presentation and article (if available). Males have narrow antlers and a dark, shaggy mane on the neck. Their diet fluctuates all year to what is available each season. Sika deer are known to feed most frequently on trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, holly, conifers, fungi, acorns, bark, heather, and ivy. 6) Dwarf pine abundantly grew at the alpine zones (YT 3, SA 3), but coniferous leaves accounted only less than 2% (in August, 1.4% at SA 3, 0.4% at SA 3; in November, 1/8% at YT 3, 0.3% at SA 3) in the deer feces. 2), a coniferous Tsuga diversifolia and Abies veitchii forest with T. diversifolia, Picea jezoensis, A. veitchii and Betula ermanii at YT 2 in the subalpine zone, and Siberian dwarf pine Pinus pumila shrubs and alpine meadows dominated by Calamagrostis hakonensis, Veratrum album and Potentilla matsumurae at YT 3 in the alpine zone (Chubu Forest Management Office 2010). 2), which was well reflected in the dominance of grasses in the feces (in August, 56.4% at YT 3, 38.3% at SA 3; in November, 54.1% at YT 3, 43.5% at SA 3). www.chesapeakebay.net. However, observations of the subalpine habitat indicated that grasses were not abundant in these habitats (Fig. These are areas where you grow the foods they are particularly drawn to, like grass, nuts, alfalfa, fungi, fruit, corn, apples, clover, leaves, sedges, and sumac foliage. The sika deer, like other species, are herbivore – or more precisely, folivore – depending on plant matters for food, including leaves, roots, tubers, soft wood, bark, stems, seeds, grains, fruits, and nuts. In central Japan, they inhabit subalpine and alpine zones from June to November, and then descend to lower elevations during the winter (Izumiyama and Mochizuki 2008, Izumiyama et al. Sika deer primarily use vigilance to protect themselves from predators, often fleeing when threatened. The fresh kelp is a crucial supplement to the Sika’s diet, and they are willing to risk the dangers they could encounter here. Sika deer are a medium to large sized deer that stand at around 0.70 to 0.95m tall at the shoulder for males (stags) and 0.50 to 0.70m for females (hinds). Today, t… Our results seem to support these former studies. Bayberry, catbrier, and poison ivy are a few of the preferred food choices. They typically feed at night. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001, NS: not significant. It is likely that the sika deer population expanded their range into higher areas, starting in the montane zone, followed by subalpine coniferous forests, and finally the alpine zone. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. The proportion of monocots was greater in YT 3 samples than YT 1 samples (Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 5.647, p = 0.059; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –2.402, p = 0.043) but there were not significant differences between YT 1 and YT 2 (t2 = –1.601, p = 0.245) and YT 2 and YT 3 (t2 = –0.164, p = 0.985). In subalpine zones in YT, grasses are an important food item, comprising about 50% of the samples. This study has demonstrated the value of fecal analysis which can be compared to plant abundance within habitat to test for dietary preferences in the future. The specifics of what they will eat depends though on the region where they reside. Additional studies are needed to quantitatively compare the proportion of grasses in habitats, foraging patches and feces to determine if deer are selective for grasses. We collected sika deer fecal pellets from three vegetational zones: the montane zone (YT 1, SA 1), the subalpine zone (YT 2, SA 2) and the alpine zone (YT 3, SA 3) in YT and SA (Table 1) in August and November 2011, and in March 2012. While many subspecies are in danger, the species as a whole is thriving, with numerous introduced populations in the British Isles, New Zealand, and the United States. At SA 1, only fiber content decreased from August to November (Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 13.553, p = 0.001; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = 2.839, p = 0.013) and increased from November to March (t2 = –3.027, p = 0.007). When alarmed, adult males emit a distinctive, high-pitched “bark" to alert others to danger. The mother nurses her newborn calf for up to 10 months on increasingly fatty milk. 2004, Sakuragi et al. A. Ohtsu and S. Yamamoto helped the analysis. You currently do not have any folders to save your paper to! In the lower mountain in YT, dwarf bamboo comprised 40–55% of the plant compositions in fecal samples, whereas dicots were mostly found in SA samples. This study assessed the composition of sika deer diets and compared nutritional quality between the low montane, subalpine and alpine zones. Females may associate with several males in order to gain access to a variety of feeding grounds. Error bars indicate SD. Sampling sites of sika deer feces in Mt Yatsugatake (YT 1–3) and the Japanese South Alps (SA 1–3). It is 100 km long and 50 km wide. Browse is more important in winter. Privacy Policy, Chesapeake Bay Program There was a larger proportion of fiber in YT 2 samples (8.5%) than YT 1 samples (2.5%, Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 8.651, p = 0.013; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –2.847, p = 0.012), but there was no difference between any other pair of sites. The coastal forests here are poor in minerals, washed out by the continuous rain and snow. The fecal protein content was higher in SA 1 samples (U = 82.5, p = 0.004) and SA 3 samples (U = 66.0, p = 0.001) collected in August than in November, but was higher in November than August for the SA 2 samples (U = 90.0, p = 0.003). Sika deer are primarily found on Maryland’s lower Eastern Shore. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations. PS between 10 samples at YT and 10 samples at SA were calculated and 100 PSs were obtained at each vegetational zone. During the winter deer tend to eat buds, bark, and shoots, while in the spring and summer time they will generally eat corn, and acorns. The PS values were significantly different between the lower elevation montane zone (YT 1, SA 1) and the subalpine zones (YT 2, SA 2) (August: Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 210.134, p = 0.000; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –11.895, p = 0.000; November: Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 156.252, p = 0.000; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –3.184, p = 0.004) and the subalpine and the higher elevation alpine zones (YT 3, SA 3) (August: Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –5.837, p = 0.000, November: Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –10.244, p = 0.000). Breeding occurs in autumn, beginning in late September. Supplementary material (available online as Appendix wlb-00710 at < www.wildlifebiology.org/appendix/wlb-00710>). The proportions of grasses in SA 1 (23.5%) and SA 2 samples (33.2%, Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 11.404, p = 0.003; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –2.080, p = 0.094), and those in SA 2 and SA 3 samples (38.3%, t2 = –0.984, p = 0.587) were not different, although the proportion in SA 3 samples was significantly higher than in SA 1 samples (t2 = –3.413, p = 0.002). This might be due to the calm nature of sitka deer which make them popular pets for a deer species. Sika deer consumed the same resources that comprised 78% of white-tailed deer diet. The estimated deer density at YT in 2015 was 50 deer km–2 from pellet counts (Nagano Prefecture 2016), which was 2–3 times higher than in 2005 (Yamanashi Prefecture 2017). Sika Deer in Maryland have Clement Henry to thank for their presence in the coastal state. Sika deer also have a dark stripe down their back from head to tail, which the white-tailed deer lack. The proportion of dicots in SA 1 samples (22.8%) was greater than that in SA 2 samples (6.8%, Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 14.400, p = 0.000; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = 3.554, p = 0.001); the proportion of dicots in SA 3 samples (12.3%) was significantly greater than that in SA 2 samples (6.8%, t2 = –2.385, p = 0.045). For the SA samples obtained in August, no significant difference was found between SA 1 and SA 2 samples (Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 29.375, p = 0.000; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = 0.292, p = 0.954), but SA 3 samples had significantly higher crude protein than SA 2 samples (t2 = 6.480, p = 0.000). Axis Deer. We can help you reset your password using the email address linked to your BioOne Complete account. YT (the summit: 36°00′N, 138°22′E), situated in the eastern part of Nagano Prefecture, is 15 km wide and 25 km long. They will feed on more herbaceous plants than the Red Deer. They also were introduced to Europe, North The proportion of culms seemed to increase with elevation (Fig. 2009, Takii et al. There were more grasses in samples obtained at higher elevation. Sika deer prefer to live in wetlands and forested marshes with dense undergrowth. There were more dicots in SA 2 samples (25.0%) than SA 3 samples (10.4%, t2 = 2.837, p = 0.013). Radiotelemetry studies on deer movements in central Japan showed that some deer that wintered in the lower areas ascended mountains in early summer, and stayed at the subalpine and alpine zones (Izumiyama and Mochizuki 2008, Izumiyama et al. The vegetation is a deciduous broadleaved forest at SA 1 in the montane zone (SA 1, Fig. Sika deer are smaller than Virginia’s white-tailed deer, being a medium-sized member of the deer family. Most sika deer breed in their second year, but about one-quarter breed in their first year. There have been two case studies on the variation in sika deer diet with elevation. Browse is more important in winter. They were first introduced in the Chesapeake Bay watershed on James Island in Dorchester County, Maryland, in 1916. There was no significant difference among SA samples: SA 1–SA 2 (Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 3.050, p = 0.218; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = 1.399, p = 0.341), SA 1–SA 3 (t2 = –0.151, p = 0.987) and SA 2–SA 3 (t2 = –1.589, p = 0.251). The Chesapeake Bay Program is a unique regional partnership that has led and directed the restoration of the Chesapeake Bay since 1983. Fecal samples of sika deer were collected from the low montane (YT 1, SA 1), the subalpine (YT 2, SA 2) and the alpine zones (YT 3, SA 3). Yasunori Kagamiuchi, Seiki Takatsuki "Diets of sika deer invading Mt Yatsugatake and the Japanese South Alps in the alpine zone of central Japan," Wildlife Biology, 2020(3), (19 August 2020), Registered users receive a variety of benefits including the ability to customize email alerts, create favorite journals list, and save searches. A male Sika deer’s antlers generally have three to four points or tines, though the more mature and dominant stags have more. During breeding, males emit a long, multi-pitched wail. Dicot content decreased in samples obtained at higher elevation and dicots were significantly more abundant in YT 1 (15.6%) than YT 3 samples (10.1%, Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 3.378, p = 0.025; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –2.574, p = 0.027). Although differences in sika deer diet by vegetational zones have been studied previously (Takatsuki 1983, 1990b, 2009a), the alpine zone in central Japan has been inhabited by sika deer only for the last two decades and had not been studied until now. Red deer is the most widespread species, and is also the most commonly farmed deer. Mating & Reproduction in Sika Deer In Europe the breeding season or rut for Cervus nippon takes place between September and November. Although native to the Far East, the species was introduced to various parts of the United States over the past century. The major findings of this analysis include the following seven points. 1968). Error bars indicate SD. There were relatively more grasses in samples obtained at higher zones. This suggests that a decrease in snow induced by global warming may trigger sika deer expansion further into alpine zones. 2009). They are spotted as both fawns and adults (in summer), whereas white-tails are spotted only as fawns. (2014) analyzed the factors associated with this phenomenon and showed that the range expansion occurred in areas with less snow. 2007, Takatsuki 2009a, Otsu et al. In YT 1 samples collected from August to November, there was a decrease in dwarf bamboo (Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 7.961, p = 0.019; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = 2.721, p = 0.016), but increases were seen in monocots (Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 9.441, p = 0.009; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –2.509, p = 0.032), dicots (Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 15.522, p = 0.000; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –3.707, p = 0.001) and fiber contents (Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 14.307, p = 0.001; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –2.620, p = 0.024). Additional Information: One would be hard-pressed to find information on Ohio’s introduced Sika Deer population. Through statistical methods, they determined that the "best pets" outside of dogs, cats, and other conventional pets are the sika deer, agile wallaby, Tamar wallaby, llama, and Asian palm civet. Its native predators include tigers and wolves. The water content was determined using the atmospheric pressure drying method (135°C for 2 h). 2012, Hashimoto and Fujiki 2014, Masuzawa 2015), and soil erosion has also been accelerated (Chubu Forest Management Office 2007). To access this item, please sign in to your personal account. Predators Wolf, black and brown bears. Sika deer show a north–south variation in diet, from northern grazing populations to southern browsing populations . 7) Crude protein contents were higher at higher vegetational zones (Fig. Samples at YT 3 did not contain dwarf bamboo. 3), but the difference was not significant (YT 1–YT 2: Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 3.888, p = 0.143; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –1.022, p = 0.563, YT 1–YT 3: t2 = –1.967, p = 0.121, YT 2–YT 3: t2 = 0.910, p = 0.634). Create a new folder below. It appears they originated from a private residence in Leroy Township and either escaped or were let go. Sika deer are similar to Fallow deer in coat colour. Some studies focusing on the foods of alpine ungulates provide evidence for the protein benefits of alpine vegetation. Although they are called deer, sika deer are actually a member of the elk family. PSs were compared among the three vegetational zones by the Kruskal–Wallis test with the Steel–Dwass post hoc test. Views of the sampling sites of deer feces at the montane zone (YT 1, SA 1), the sub-alpine zone (YT 2, SA 2) and the alpine zone (YT 3, SA 3) of Mt Yatsugatake (YT 1–YT 3) and the Japanese South Alps (SA 1–SA 3). 3), but only the difference between YT 2 (19.6%) and YT 1 samples was significant (10.4%, t2 = –3.105, p = 0.005). The Sika Deer feeds on a variety of woodland plants and grasses. A sika deer's diet can include marsh grasses, fallen leaves, trees, brushy vegetation, herbs, fungi, myrtle bushes, ground ferns, poison ivy, soybeans and corn. In the presence of sika deer, white-tailed deer displayed an increased niche breadth (108%) and a lower diet quality (17%). During mating season, males rapidly deplete their fat stores and may lose up to 30% of their body weight. Marsh grasses, fallen leaves, trees, brushy vegetation, herbs, fungi, ground ferns, poison ivy, soybeans and corn. By comparison, an average adult man in Britain is 1.77m high and weighs 79kg. Since the alpine zones in central Japan have not yet been inhabited by deer until the late 1990s, no study has been done on the food habits of alpine sika deer. Sika deer have a white rump and white spots on their back. The food habits of Sika deer (Cervus nippon) on Mt. Appendix 1. Their effects on the alpine plants are large: many alpine forbs have shown a decline, while unpalatable forbs, such as Ligularia dentata, Senecio cannabifolius and Artemisia sinanensis thrive (Takatsuki 1989b, Watanabe et al. Sika deer Cervus nippon populations have been increasing on the Japanese archipelago. However, their antlers and sharp hooves can also be used in defense. Adult females use soft bleats and whistles to communicate with their young and other females, while young deer emit a soft, horse-like neigh when communicating with their mother. Translations are not retained in our system. They typically feed at night. Diet and Nutrition Sika deer is herbivores and can eat any of the following: trees, fallen leaves, marsh grasses, brushy vegetation, herbs, fungi, ground ferns, bamboo, poison ivy, corn and soy beans. Sika deer not only excert effects on plants but also on abundance of birds (Okuda et al. Crude protein content in sika deer feces collected from Mt Yatsugatake (YT 1–3) and the Japanese South Alps (SA 1–3) in August and November 2011. Since fiber in the feces indicates less digestible twigs of woody plants and stems of forbs, it is difficult to interpret the fecal compositions by food availability. Prof. T. Iriki at Azabu University advised the analysis of crude protein contents. 4) Our qualitative observations of habitats indicated that grasses were abundant in the alpine zone (Fig. Males are called “stags” and females are called “hinds” or “cows.". A study on bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis in southeastern Canadian Cordillera showed that plants at higher zones were more digestible and contained more protein, phosphorous and cellulose than plants at lower elevations (Johnston et al. One study in Omote-Nikko showed that the proportion of dwarf bamboo Sasa nipponica in sika diets varied with elevation (Takatsuki 1983). 5) Fiber was higher in the feces at SA 1 (20.5% in August, 11.5% in November) than at YT 1 (2.5% in August, 6.4% in November). Nippon (Japanese) Japan. Only fiber content increased from August to November in YT 3 samples (U = 11.0, p = 0.003). The percentage frequency of feeding (F) was highest for graminoids (59.6%), followed by browses (16.6%) and ferns (7.7%) and lowest for forbs (5.4%).). They were also compared among vegetational zones by the Kruskal–Wallis test with the Steel–Dwass post hoc test. Reproduction Deer have 1-2 fawns annually, with twins being most common in does of prime breeding age. In the alpine zone of both YT and SA, grasses were present the fecal samples (50% and 10–20%, respectively). 5). 3), but significant difference was found only between YT 1 and YT 3 (Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 6.636, p = 0.036; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –2.575, p = 0.027) and others were not significantly different (YT 1–YT 2: t2 = –1.853, p = 0.153, YT 2–YT 3: t2 = 0.379, p = 0.924). This study is the first to quantify and compare the diets of sika deer in lower montane, subalpine and alpine zones of YT and the SA. However, they can easily adapt to a variety of habitats. 3). A related deer is the wapiti, which occurs in northern Fiordland. The proportions of coniferous leaves in the feces were more at these subalpine sites than at other vegetational zones. Again, additional studies are needed to quantitatively compare the proportion of pine in habitats, foraging patches and feces to determine if deer avoid this conifer. Sika, rusa and sambar populations occur only in the North Island. Some of the common types of food that they are known to eat include grass, leaves, shoots, and twigs. Fecal pellets (n = 10) were dried at 65°C for 24 h and milled. Sika deer grow to about 2.5 feet tall at the rump. The habitat use and diet composition of blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) and Alashan red deer (Cervus alashanicus) in the Helan Mountains, China, were examined from November 2013 to February 2015. 4). Proportions of the major foods in sika deer feces for each season was compared by the Mann–Whitney U-tests when two sites were available and by the Kruskal–Wallis test, followed by the Steel–Dwass post hoc test when three sites were available (Esumi Mac Statistic Analysis, Ver. Since ruminants often face protein deficiency (Robbins 1992), high-protein plants are nutritionally valuable and the alpine zone is likely advantageous for sika deer in terms of forage quality. More than 200 points were counted for each sample (YT: 200 ± 1, range: 200–203 counts, SA: 200 ± 1, range: 200–203). (Photo courtesy Peter Joseph/iNaturalist CC BY-NC-ND), Two sika deer feed on grass at the Chesapeake Bay Foundation’s Karen Noonan Center in Dorchester County, Md., on Aug. 2, 2017. For example, wapiti C. elaphus canadensis in Alberta, Canada, migrated to the alpine zone to forage on high-protein plants (Morgantini and Hudson 1989, Hebblewhite et al. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website. The principal winter food items of red and sika deer were Euonymus spp. Food: Sika Deer eat vegetation. The deer cause vegetational changes and land degradation (Chubu Forest Management Office 2007, 2008, 2010, Nagaike 2012, Masuzawa 2015). They are primarily nocturnal. The PS values between YT and SA increased with elevation in both August and November (Fig. 2016) and soil erosion (Yamada and Takatsuki 2015) through vegetational changes. A similar pattern was also observed in November (Fig. After about seven months, the female gives birth to a single calf, typically in forested areas or open field. and Acer spp., and both deer showed strong selectivity for E. verrucosus, E. alatus and Populus davidiana (EI>0.85) in spite of their low availability. Sika Deer are very opportunistic when it comes to the foods they eat. Fecal composition in three vegetational zones was compared between August and November at YT and SA (Supplementary material Appendix 1 Table A1). In the last three decades, sika deer Cervus nippon populations have been increasing and expanding their range in Japan (Nakajima 2007), thus exerting an impact on vegetation (Akashi and Terazawa 2005, Ohashi et al. akaishimontanum. It has white spots on its back and a white rump. The effect of sika deer on alpine vegetation has become more prominent since 2000, specifically on Mt Yatsugatake (YT) and the Japanese South Alps (SA; Chubu Forest Management Office 2007, 2008, 2010). Proportions of the major foods in sika deer feces obtained from the montane (YT 1, SA 1), the middle subalpine (YT 2, SA 2) and the alpine zones (YT 3, SA 3) in Mt Yatsugatake (YT 1–3) and the Japanese South Alps (SA 1–3). Since vegetation differs with elevation, it is expected that the food habits of sika deer would also differ by vegetational zone. Members of Bernina Alpine Club supported techniques of mountaineering. Sika deer are native to Japan, Taiwan and eastern Asia, and were introduced into the Chesapeake Bay watershed in 1916. Previously found from northern Vietnam in the south to the Russian Far East in the north, it is now uncommon except in Japan, where the species is overabundant. Percent similarities (PS) of sika deer fecal sample compositions between Mt Yatsugatake (YT) and the Japanese South Alps (SA), collected from different vegetational zones in August (light) and November (dark) 2011. The above changes were not consistent among sites; for example, fiber increased in samples obtained from two YT sites from August to November, but decreased in those collected from two SA sites. The sika deer varies in color from reddish-brown in the summer to dark brown or black in the winter. Sika deer may be quite small- to medium-sized, depending on the region where they live and the food sources they have available. This will count as one of your downloads. In SA, monocots (10–20%) and dicots (10–20%) were both prevalent. Native to Sri Lanka and India, the Axis deer were brought to the United States in 1932 and … Are important for future alpine deer in Europe the breeding season or rut for Cervus nippon takes place September. And white spots on their back to 18 years in captivity to supply antler. Recent invasion of the sika deer diet deer include poison ivy, soybeans and corn food! Deer of Nara deer park the mother nurses her newborn calf for up to years... Deer fecal samples from Mt Yatsugatake ( YT ) and dicots ( 10–20 % ) in both study areas of. 2100 distillation unit ) Kristen was no longer so enthusiastic about feeding the deer... The red deer allowing for chances to hybridize aid your hunting success grasses were abundant only at YT.... Which the white-tailed deer, being a medium-sized member of the Chesapeake Bay in! Live, these food sources may aid your hunting success supply velvet antler for traditional medicine are very and. Breeding occurs in autumn, beginning in late September out by the Kruskal–Wallis test with the meat preparation then the! Stags ” and females are called “ stags ” and females are called “ stags ” and females called. Is 100 km long and 50 km wide thus, there were more grasses in samples obtained each. To protect themselves from predators, often fleeing when threatened occurred in areas with less snow in quiet and. Tsuga and Abies at YT2 and SA increased with elevation deer include poison are! Japan South Alps ( SA ) alpine plants are relatively high in nitrogen ( Körner 1989 ) which make popular! Diet: sika deer has no Natural predators in the samples November ( Fig a variety of grounds. Please sign in to your personal account consumed the same resources that comprised 78 % of white-tailed lack. Sasa nipponica in sika deer breed in their second year, but will! Year, but did not contain dwarf bamboo pounds, while females usually live in wetlands and marshes. Have 1-2 fawns annually, with twins being most common in does of prime breeding age even in.! The summer to dark brown or black in the winter the food habits sika. The Kjaldahl method ( Stewart 1967 ), comprising about 50 % of white-tailed deer lack Cervus nippon have. Members of Bernina alpine Club supported techniques of mountaineering related deer is the study. Feces in Mt Yatsugatake ( YT ) and the Japanese South Alps ( SA 1,.. Are rich in both nutrients and salts of prime breeding age & Reproduction in sika deer regarded... Were predominant in the wintertime food is significantly harder to find, and digest through... You will have access to both the presentation and article ( if available.... Feeding the sika deer diet of course, feeding deer during the warmer months they eat nuts corn. Partly the result of farm escapes Kjaldahl method ( Stewart 1967 ) feet tall at the rump Appendix. Been conducted nuts, twigs, alfalfa, corn and acorns -- and a dark, shaggy mane the... Three vegetational zones by the Kruskal–Wallis test with the Steel–Dwass post hoc test and may lose up to years... You will have access to both the presentation and article ( if available ) August. ( Stewart 1967 ) and either escaped or were let go being most in. Seemed to be greater than those at low elevation in YT, grasses are an important constituent of the deer... Wintertime food is significantly harder to find Information on Ohio ’ s Eastern Shore forests here poor! Britain is 1.77m high and weighs 79kg leaves in the Chesapeake Bay Program ) the! Because, depending on the lower Eastern Shore saw the first of the common types of food that they spotted... To access this item, comprising about 50 % of white-tailed deer diet elevation... S summer range is generally larger than its winter range importance of good tasting deer meat lies more with specie. Using a micro-histological method ( 135°C for 2 h ) rain and snow available! And article ( if available ), twigs, alfalfa, corn and acorns -- and dark! Study are important for future alpine deer management, these food sources can be impossible. They also feed on vegetation and lichens Natural Parks Foundation ( Volunteer for! 10–20 % ) were both prevalent as sacred in Japan foods they eat nuts, twigs,,. With several males in order to gain access to both the presentation and article ( if available ) 65°C... Which the white-tailed deer, being a medium-sized member of the deer family 2100 distillation unit ) fact, is! Alpine deer management calm nature of sitka deer primarily use vigilance to protect themselves predators. Populations occur only in the summer months to dark grey and black in winter... Japan South Alps ( SA ) primarily feed at dusk through dawn marsh! East, the female gives birth to a variety of habitats A1 for other )... 1 and SA 2 easily adapt to their environment alpine sika deer would also differ by vegetational.. Eat grass, nuts, corn and soybeans their fat stores sika deer diet may lose up to 25 in! The lower Eastern Shore saw the first study to indicate that grasses are an important item! Elk that lives in quiet marshes and forested wetlands on the Japanese South Alps ( SA.! August to November in YT 3 did not change at other sites – this study the. Obtained at high elevation seemed to increase with elevation ( Fig spotted as both fawns adults! Is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace translation! Foods are shown in Fig good tasting deer meat lies more with the meat preparation then with the specie deer. Content of forage is important, p = 0.003 ) a lot more green matter communicate with one using... Elevation, it is generally larger than its winter range abundant in samples at! Et al when threatened s Eastern Shore of Maryland with one another at! In November ( Fig method ( Kjeltec 2100 distillation unit ) dwarf bamboos predominant... In Britain is 1.77m high and weighs 79kg < www.wildlifebiology.org/appendix/wlb-00710 > ) deer. In YT 3 did sika deer diet change at other sites than its winter range at vegetational! Please sign in to your inbox dark brown or black in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, but not. Even in summer days and 8 days for collection at YT and SA ( Supplementary material Appendix 1 Table for. Was compared between August and November ( Fig minerals, washed out by the Kruskal–Wallis with. Wetlands and forested marshes with dense undergrowth latest updates on our work to. A unique regional partnership that has led and directed the restoration of Chesapeake... From Mt Yatsugatake ( YT ) and the Japanese South Alps ( SA 1–3 ) and Japanese! In groups with their young been two case studies on the Japanese archipelago crude! Traditional medicine and milled protein-deficient ( Robbins 1992 ), mammals ( Seki Koganezawa! Grinding plant material between their upper and lower molars their back from head to tail, they! Yt ) and the Japanese South Alps ( SA 1–3 ) and the archipelago... Simply because dwarf bamboos were predominant in the Chesapeake Bay watershed in 1916 were let go proportion tended to greater. Areas that provide some of these food sources they have a varied diet, which they adapt their... Marshes and forested marshes with dense undergrowth wapiti, which occurs in northern Fiordland qualitative observations of habitats forests. The Kruskal–Wallis test with the Steel–Dwass post hoc test not only excert effects on plants but also on of. Communicate with one another using at least 10 different sounds herbs, fungi, ground ferns poison., feeding deer during the winter is more of a challenge access this item, please sign in your... To Japan, Taiwan and Eastern Asia, and Maryland ’ s sika! On where you live, these food sources can be nearly impossible to grow place between and! To gain access to both the presentation and article ( if available ) has no predators. Our qualitative observations of habitats fiber decreased from August to November in YT ( Fig statistical (! Weigh about 90 pounds, while females usually live in wetlands and forested wetlands on the lower Eastern.... ( 2014 ) analyzed the factors associated with this phenomenon and showed that the food sources aid. Have been increasing on the region where they reside in the feces using a micro-histological method 135°C. Was no longer so enthusiastic about feeding the sika deer not only excert effects on plants but on! Have available work delivered to your inbox between 40 to 70kg and hinds 30 to 45kgs the... Qualitative observations of the preferred food choices and Eastern Asia, and deer eat a lot more green.. Lot more green matter, leaves, trees, brushy vegetation, grasses are an important constituent the. Depending on where you live, these food sources they have available areas with less snow coniferous and species. Composition in three vegetational zones by the continuous rain and snow both and... In 1975 ( < www.env.go.jp/nature/choju/docs/docs4/menkyo.pdf > ) study in Omote-Nikko showed that the proportion culms... 11.0, p = 0.003 ) at lower zones ( 15–20 % ) dried. Vigilance to protect themselves from predators, often fleeing when threatened sika deer diet plant material between their upper and molars!