U.S.A. 106, 13124–13129. 94, 461–472. Proc. Isolation and expression analysis of two stress-responsive sucrose-synthase genes from the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum (Hochst.). Sci. Our phylogenetic tree (Figure 2) groups all of gymnosperm SuSy amino acid sequences together in two branches (marked by a green arc); whereas the angiosperm SuSy amino acid sequences are divided among three clades, SUS I, SUS II, and SUS III. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msw054, Kumutha, D., Sairam, R. K., Ezhilmathi, K., Chinnusamy, V., and Meena, R. C. (2008). doi: 10.1146/annurev.pp.39.060188.002035, Huang, D. Y., and Wang, A. Y. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Evol. 4, 87–101. Planta 232, 701–718. One of the enzymes thought to be involved in plant responses to hypoxia is SuSy. Sucrose synthase proteins association to the plasma membrane is considered to be strong as the use of 0.5M NaCl, 0.1–1% triton X-100, 25 nm EDTA and other detergents barely solubilized SuSy from the plasma membranes (Amor et al., 1995; Carlson and Chourey, 1996). doi: 10.1104/pp.106.4.1659, Sheen, J., Zhou, L., and Jang, J. C. (1999). Temporal and spatial expression pattern of sucrose synthase during tomato fruit development. SuSy activity is feedback-inhibited by its product, Fru, and its activity is also reversible. Companion-cell specific localization of sucrose synthase in zones of phloem loading and unloading. ; Zhang et al., 2013; Zhu et al., 2017). 44, 500–509. 6H 2 O + 6CO 2 = C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2. Roles of sugars in controlling flowering time. J. Although imported photoassimilate can be used for respiration, sink-strength estimations are mainly based on net weight gain (Ho, 1988). Arabidopsis SuSy isoform, SUS2, was immunolocalized to plastid membranes of maturing seeds and it was suggested that this enzyme may play a role in directing carbon to plastid starch or lipid synthesis (Angeles-Nunez et al., 2008). 50, 1651–1662. Yang, C. L., and Su, J. C. (1980). Sucrose synthase in wild tomato, Lycopersicon chmielewskii, and tomato fruit sink strength. J. Exp. Acta 755, 81–89. doi: 10.1007/BF00018467, Zeng, Y., Wu, Y., Avigne, W. T., and Koch, K. E. (1998). Biol. (1999). A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis indicates that a first SUS duplication event may have occurred before the divergence of the gymnosperms and angiosperms and a second duplication event probably occurred in a common angiosperm ancestor, leading to the existence of all three clades in both monocots and dicots. Plant Physiol. Genome-wide analysis of the sucrose synthase gene family in grape (Vitis vinifera): structure, evolution, and expression profiles. But still it is not clear which the first product of photosynthesis. Mutations at the rug4 locus alter the carbon and nitrogen metabolism of pea plants through an effect on sucrose synthase. Plant Physiol. Planta 217, 252–260. 281, 15625–15635. A third maize SuSy isoform, SUS2, was found only in cytosolic fractions (Duncan et al., 2006). Sucrose synthase FaSS1 plays an important role in the regulation of strawberry fruit ripening. Abdullah, M., Cao, Y., Cheng, X., Meng, D., Chen, Y., Shakoor, A., et al. Plant responses to hypoxia - is survival a balancing act? The results also revealed increased expression of both WUSCHEL (WUS) and CycD3, leading to the increased proliferation of meristematic cells. Plant Mol. The three maize sucrose synthase isoforms differ in distribution, localization, and phosphorylation. 129, 1664–1673. The Suc signal for flowering may be mediated by trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P). Interestingly, even a double mutant (sus2 and sus3) and a quadruple mutant (sus1, sus2, sus3, and sus4) did not show any seed-related phenotypes (Bieniawska et al., 2007; Barratt et al., 2009), suggesting that Arabidopsis SuSy are not important for seed sink strength. Plant Cell Environ. Localization of SuSy from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) pollen tubes, revealed two isoforms, one of which is associated with the plasma membrane and the other one is associated with the plasma membrane and is also found in the cytosol (Persia et al., 2008). Adv. Sucrose synthase (SuSy) is a glycosyl transferase enzyme that plays a key role in sugar metabolism, primarily in sink tissues. The formula associated with the process of photosynthesis is. Biol. (2003). 46, 107–113. Starch biosynthesis, its regulation and biotechnological approaches to improve crop yields. The mechanism of synthesis of a mixed-linkage (1– > 3), (1– > 4)beta-D-glucan in maize. 117, 257–268. The cloning, genetic mapping, and expression of the constitutive sucrose synthase locus of maize. (2014). (2003). Pronounced phenotypic changes in transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing sucrose synthase may reveal a novel sugar signaling pathway. (2017). (2012). Although overexpression of cotton SUS in tobacco plants did not affect cellulose content (Coleman et al., 2006), its overexpression in poplar trees did increase their cellulose content, as well as cell-wall thickness and wood density (Coleman et al., 2009). Planta 210, 41–49. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182334, Guerin, J., and Carbonero, P. (1997). However, because 90% suppression of SuSy activity in maize endosperm resulted in only a 40% reduction in starch, doubts were raised as to whether or not SuSy is directly involved in starch synthesis in sink tissues. 11, 67–75. Breed. Sugar metabolism in developing kernels of starch-deficient endosperm mutants of maize. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erh047, Biemelt, S., Hajirezaei, M. R., Melzer, M., Albrecht, G., and Sonnewald, U. Sucrose is the end product of photosynthesis and the primary sugar transported in the phloem of most plants. Biol. F1,6BP is transformed to F6P by fructose bisphosphate phosphatase to F6P, which is then converted into G6P by phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI). Plant Physiol. It is a nonreducing sugar with limited chemical reactivity and thus is utilized as a transport and storage molecule in most plants. Bioinformatics 8, 275–282. Overexpression of potato SUS in cotton plants led to increased vegetative growth (Xu et al., 2012). Fourteen SUS genes have been discovered in tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum) (Wang et al., 2015) and 15 SUS genes have been identified in poplar (Populus trichocarpa) (An et al., 2014). C O2. (2018). Plant SuSy activity was initially identified primarily in cytosolic fractions (Nishimura and Beevers, 1979; Macdonald and Ap Rees, 1983; Morell and Copeland, 1985; Keller et al., 1988) and, therefore, SuSy enzymes were presumed to be cytosolic. Most published phylogenetic analyses of plant SUS genes have divided SuSy into three separate clades: SUS I, SUS II, and SUS III. D-fructose, sucrose and starch are commonly are formed in the green cells during photosynthesis. Sucrase, lactase and other pancreatic enzymes break down sucrose and lactose. Plant Mol. The main issues that need to be further explored are: (1) the regulation of SUS expression and intracellular localization of specific SuSy isozymes, (2) the co-evolution of SuSy and INV and the division of Suc cleavage between these two group of enzymes, (3) the differences between the SUS I, SUS II, and SUS III clades, and (4) the roles of SuSy in meristem and leaf development. Bot. Acad. Sci. Plant Physiol. Maize sucrose synthase-1 promoter directs phloem cell-specific expression of GUS gene in transgenic tobacco plants. Yang, N. S., and Russell, D. (1990). Oddly, in many of these papers, only the SUS I clade included a clear separation between eudicot and monocot species; whereas in the other clades, and the SUS II clade in particular, there was no clear separation between monocots and eudicots (Chen et al., 2012; Xiao et al., 2014; Li et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2015; Zhang et al., 2015; Zhu et al., 2017). Plant Cell Physiol. The SuSy in plasma membranes and cell walls and their production of UDP-G may be important for directing carbon toward cellulose or callose synthesis; whereas INV may direct carbon to other metabolic pathways. Enzymic properties of amyloplasts form suspension cultures of soybean. Sci. Sucrose is metabolised by sucrose synthase and glycolysis within the phloem complex of Ricinus communis L. seedlings. The hexoses can be phosphorylated to hexose phosphates (hex-P), directed to starch synthesis in the plastid or to glycolysis and then respiration in the mitochondria or directed to other metabolic pathways. (2008). doi: 10.1016/S0014-5793(98)00659-0, Xiao, X., Tang, C., Fang, Y., Yang, M., Zhou, B., Qi, J., et al. doi: 10.1104/pp.116.4.1573, Zeng, Y., Wu, Y., Avigne, W. T., and Koch, K. E. (1999). Physiol. Natl. doi: 10.22438/jeb/39/4/MRN-503, Wahl, V., Ponnu, J., Schlereth, A., Arrivault, S., Langenecker, T., Franke, A., et al. Tomato fructokinases exhibit differential expression and substrate regulation. 33, 1870–1874. (1998). Other studies have produced somewhat contradictory evidence for the role of SuSy in sink strength. Sucrose synthase of Arabidopsis: genomic cloning and sequence characterization. There is a lot of evidence that SUS are highly expressed in vascular tissues. Biochim. 49, 810–828. We created a SuSy phylogenetic tree using 133 SuSy amino acid sequences from 25 plant species (11 eudicots, 8 monocots, and 6 gymnosperms). The localization of SuSy to mitochondria and its possible interaction with a high voltage-dependent anion channel suggest that these SuSy may play a role in regulating solute fluxes between the mitochondria and the cytosol (Subbaiah et al., 2006). Each clade is divided into two sub-clades: monocots (marked with red arcs) and eudicots (marked with turquoise arcs). Equip. Planta 209, 13–24. Sucrose synthase may also play other important roles, in addition to its role in Suc cleavage. Science 339, 704–707. These two carbohydrates have been shown to play a significant role in the rate of photosynthesis at a given time. Rev. The first evidence of non-cytosolic SuSy was found in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers, in which 50% or more of the SuSy protein was found to be tightly associated with the plasma membrane (Amor et al., 1995). Crop Sci. Integration of light and metabolic signals for stem cell activation at the shoot apical meristem. The second site is also a serine, at around position 170, and is thought to regulate protein degradation (Hardin et al., 2003). It is more likely that SuSy are interacting with other proteins and form a complex that is also associated with the cellulose synthases or callose synthases located to membranes (Persia et al., 2008; Fujii et al., 2010). The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. J. Chin. 98, 1163–1169. Quaternary structure of sucrose synthetase from banana fruits. It can then enter the sink cells via Suc transporters or hydrolyzed by cell-wall invertase (cwINV) to yield glucose (Glc) and fructose (Fru), which can enter the sink cells via hexose transporters (Ruan, 2014). In transgenic tomato plant with antisense suppression of SUS, reduced Suc import was observed only in very young fruits (7 days after anthesis) and not during the later starch-accumulation phase (23 DAA; D’Aoust et al., 1999). In cucumber (Cucumis sativa), transgenic plants with suppressed CsSUS3, which is mainly expressed in root phloem companion cells, were found to be more sensitive to hypoxic stress caused by flooding (Wang et al., 2014). (1999). Plant Mol. Sci. The role of sugars as signaling molecules in the SAM is a subject of lively debate and it is not always easy to differentiate between their signaling function and their metabolic role. Front. In others, such as grapes and pears, fructose is the main sugar. J. doi: 10.1007/s00344-018-9864-1, Macdonald, F. D., and Ap Rees, T. (1983). (2012). doi: 10.1104/pp.108.2.735, Haigler, C. H., Ivanova-Datcheva, M., Hogan, P. S., Salnikov, V. V., Hwang, S., Martin, K., et al. It was later found that a cellulose synthase rosette-like structure, isolated from azuki beans, lacks cellulose-synthesis activity in the absence of another particle referred to as the catalytic unit. FEBS Lett. doi: 10.1016/S0014-5793(97)01506-8, Winter, H., Huber, J. L., and Huber, S. C. (1998). Biol. (2013). 397, 139–148. That is, in case of excess cleavage of Suc by SuSy, the increased fructose Fru inhibits fructokinase activity so that fructose accumulates and that accumulated Fru inhibits further cleavage of Suc by SuSy. Structure, expression profile, and evolution of the sucrose synthase gene family in peach (Prunus persica). This fact, the greater activity of SuSy, as compared with AGPase, in barley seeds, and the reduced levels of ADP-G observed in potato tubers with repressed SUS together suggest that Suc cleavage by SuSy directly supplies ADP-G for starch synthesis (Baroja-Fernandez et al., 2003). Plant Physiol. Planta 217, 628–638. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding plant SuSy, including newly discovered possible developmental roles for SuSy in meristem functioning that involve sugar and hormonal signaling. In the cytosol, Suc can be hydrolyzed by cytosolic INV to yield Glc and Fru, or cleaved by cytosolic SuSy to yield Fru and UDP-G. Structure and expression analysis of the sucrose synthase gene family in apple. Inside the cell, Suc can be stored in the vacuole or hydrolyzed by vINV. Proc. 121, 599–608. Phloem loading is thought to be highly important for defining sink strength and the breakdown of Suc in sink organs may also contribute to sink strength. On the other hand, Amor et al. These monosacharides are combined into polysaccharides such as sucrose for transport and storage. For example, a reduction in SuSy activity reduced starch content in potato tubers, carrot taproots and maize endosperm (Chourey and Nelson, 1976; Zrenner et al., 1995; Tang and Sturm, 1999). doi: 10.1104/pp.104.2.535, Wang, H. Y., Sui, X. L., Guo, J. J., Wang, Z. Y., Cheng, J. T., Ma, S., et al. doi: 10.1146/annurev-arplant-050213-040251, Ruan, Y. L., and Chourey, P. S. (1998). Sucrose is the end product of photosynthesis and the primary sugar transported in the phloem of most plants. Novel marker genes for early leaf development indicate spatial regulation of carbohydrate metabolism within the apical meristem. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313X.2003.01831.x, Hauch, S., and Magel, E. (1998). (1991). The role of SuSy in the synthesis of cellulose and callose has been thoroughly investigated in cotton, with cotton fibers serving as a model for these processes. In Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. Gene 539, 58–67. Induction of sucrose synthase and its roles during anaerobic growth in pondweed turions. FEBS Lett. 101, 800–806. Arabidopsis knock-out mutants are available for all SUS genes and double mutants for clade-specific SuSy isoforms have been created. The sucrose synthase gene family in Populus: structure, expression, and evolution. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313X.1995.07010097.x, Keywords: sucrose metabolism, sugar signaling, plant development, cellulose synthesis, callose synthesis, starch synthesis, meristem, Citation: Stein O and Granot D (2019) An Overview of Sucrose Synthases in Plants. Sucrose synthase localizes to cellulose synthesis sites in tracheary elements. Antisense repression of sucrose synthase in carrot (Daucus carota L.) affects growth rather than sucrose partitioning. (2016). Since then, many other SUS genes have been cloned from different plants, including another maize SUS (McCarty et al., 1986; Shaw et al., 1994) and genes from Arabidopsis (Chopra et al., 1992; Martin et al., 1993), rice (Wang et al., 1992; Yu et al., 1992), potato (Solanum tuberosum) (Fu et al., 1991; Fu and Park, 1995) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) (Goren et al., 2011). Glucose is the monosaccharide plants and algae initially manufacture to store energy produced during photosynthesis. sugar+oxygen. The transgenic plants overexpressing AtSUS1 showed increased chlorophyll levels, as well as increased photosynthesis, TSS (total soluble sugars), starch, Suc and Fru, as well as increased enzymatic activity of SPS and SPP in leaves, indicating increased sugar production in the transgenic plants. doi: 10.1104/pp.120.4.1105, Cai, G., Faleri, C., Del Casino, C., Emons, A. M., and Cresti, M. (2011). 45, S151–S151. 116, 1323–1331. To summarize, plant SuSy activity has been shown to play important roles in plant sugar metabolism, primarily in sink tissues. Plant physiologists and biochemists have tried to find the first product of this process. 134, 1146–1152. Phytochemistry 57, 823–833. Other SuSy isoforms are much smaller, for example, the bird cherry SuSy monomers are estimated to be about 53, 58, and 63 kDa (Sytykiewicz et al., 2008). These unique phylogenetic trees raise fundamental questions about the evolution of SuSy in plants. Sucrose metabolism: gateway to diverse carbon use and sugar signaling. (2016). Planta 233, 1011–1023. Subcellular distribution of gluconeogenetic enzymes in germinating castor bean endosperm. After that sucrose and later starch appeared. An expression analysis profile for the entire sucrose synthase gene family in rice. Sugars as signaling molecules. OS and DG jointly wrote the manuscript, and read and approved the final manuscript. . doi: 10.1073/pnas.87.11.4144, Yarnes, S. C., and Sengupta-Gopalan, C. (2009). Upon arriving in sink tissues, Suc can enter the sink cells via several different pathways (Ma et al., 2018). Lysine-containing proteins in maize endosperm: a major contribution from cytoskeleton-associated carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes. 39, 459–466. The Formula. Immunolocalization of the cotton fiber SuSy revealed an arrangement pattern similar to that of cellulose microfibril deposition (Amor et al., 1995). None of those mutants exhibit any significant phenotype that suggesting redundancy between the different clades (Bieniawska et al., 2007). (2009). (2016), it was shown that both sucrose and light affect WUS expression in the SAM, although Suc is unable to release SAM dormancy in the dark. 18, 139–142. G6P can be used to form nucleotide sugars such as UDP-glucose (UDP-G), and UDP-G is combined with F6P to form sucrose 6-phosphate (sucrose-P) in a reaction catalyzed by sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS). Expression analysis of a sucrose synthase gene from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Biotechnol. 89, 1117–1121. J. Environ. 25, 663–674. 420, 151–155. (2018). doi: 10.1073/pnas.1114963109, Peron, T., Veronesi, C., Mortreau, E., Pouvreau, J. The expression of the SUS3 gene was found to be higher in the resistant line under heat stress. Left side is Fig. Indeed, overexpression of Arabidopsis SUS in tobacco results in increased leaf starch (Bahaji et al., 2011; Nguyen et al., 2016). doi: 10.1023/A:1006199003756, Subbaiah, C. C., Palaniappan, A., Duncan, K., Rhoads, D. M., Huber, S. C., and Sachs, M. M. (2006). Biol. Plant Microbe Interact. (2017). Transgenic potato plants with reduced SuSy activity only in tubers exhibited reduced tuber dry weight (Zrenner et al., 1995), further supporting the correlation between SuSy activity and sink strength. Analyses of the sucrose synthase gene family in cotton: structure, phylogeny and expression patterns. Chem. Proc. Sugar-induced increases in trehalose 6-phosphate are correlated with redox activation of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase and higher rates of starch synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. All these observations support the role of SuSy in starch accumulation. New insight into the catalytic properties of rice sucrose synthase. Sci. The SlSUS4 transcript was shown to be present asymmetrically and localized to the primordia from very early stages of development using in situ hybridization with an SlSUS4 antisense probe (Pien et al., 2001). Therefore, the final end products of starch digestion are glucose, sucrose and â¦ To be metabolized, Suc must be cleaved by either cytosolic invertase or SuSy (EC 188.8.131.52). Use of the rice sucrose synthase-1 promoter to direct phloem-specific expression of beta-glucuronidase and snowdrop lectin genes in transgenic tobacco plants. Chem. In vivo and in vitro phosphorylation of membrane and soluble forms of soybean nodule sucrose synthase. Plant Cell Environ. 7, 97–107. Front. Plasma membrane associated SuSy (pmSuSy) and cwSUS can generate UDP-G that is used in the synthesis of cellulose for cell walls and callose for plugging plasmodesmata. 252, 303–310. Interestingly, transgenic plants of a commercial rice cultivar expressing SUS3 showed a decreased percentage of chalky grains under heat stress only when both the promoter and the cDNA of the heat-tolerant allele were introduced, indicating not only the importance of the SUS3 protein, but also the response rate to heat stress in terms of gene expression (Takehara et al., 2018). 9, 100–101. Biochem. The spatial distribution of sucrose synthase isozymes in barley. Because Suc cleavage by SuSy yields UDP-G, which is a direct substrate for both cellulose (β1-4) and callose (β1-3) glucans, it is widely assumed that SuSy plays a role in the synthesis of both of these polysaccharides. Funct. Harada, T., Satoh, S., Yoshioka, T., and Ishizawa, K. (2005). SuSy proteins are usually homotetramers with an average monomeric molecular weight of about 90 kD (about 800 amino acids long). “Cellulose biosynthesis in developing cotton fibers,” in Cotton Fibres: Developmental Biology, Quality Improvement, and Textile Processing, ed. However, SuSy appear to localize to the phloem not only in the Suc unloading zones, but also in loading zones in mature leaves of citrus, maize, rice, Arabidopsis, and poplar (Nolte and Koch, 1993; Regmi et al., 2016), which suggests that SuSy probably play a general role in the phloem that is not limited to phloem unloading. Strawberry fruits with RNAi suppression of FaSUS1 by virus-induced gene-silencing exhibited delayed fruit ripening, maintained their firmness and exhibited delayed anthocyanin accumulation (Zhao et al., 2017). Overexpression of poplar xylem sucrose synthase in tobacco leads to a thickened cell wall and increased height. J. Exp. Sequences were aligned using MUSCLE with default options and analyzed in MEGA 7.0 (Kumar et al., 2016). Plant Biol. Gene 88, 167–172. Evidence for a role of SuSy in callose deposition was found in an Arabidopsis double mutant of phloem-specific SUS (sus5 sus6). SuSy catalyzes the reversible cleavage of sucrose into fructose and either uridine diphosphate glucose (UDP-G) or adenosine diphosphate glucose (ADP-G). Identification and characterization of the Populus sucrose synthase gene family. Mol. “Cloning and sequencing of two differentially expressed sucrose synthase genes from potato,” in Proceedings of the Third International Congress of Plant Molecular Biology, Tucson, AZ. Plant Physiol. (2014). J. Genet. Sucrose is the end product of photosynthesis and the primary sugar transported in the phloem of most plants. Oxygen is passed into the atmosphere and the hydrogen is used to assimilate carbon dioxide in a dark (non photosynthetic) reaction that forms starch, sucrose, and another disaccharide called maltose. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. Sucrose synthase affects carbon partitioning to increase cellulose production and altered cell wall ultrastructure. 430, 205–208. Evidence for plasma membrane-associated forms of sucrose synthase in maize. Sucrose is the end product of photosynthesis and is found naturally in many food plants along with the monosaccharide fructose. Impact Factor 4.402 | CiteScore 7.8More on impact ›. The separation of monocots and eudicots in these clades suggests that the duplication occurred in a common angiosperm ancestor, also reported by Zhang et al. doi: 10.1104/pp.116.4.1323, Ruan, Y. L. (2007). SuSy from potato tubers and barley endosperm were shown to have similar Km values for the nucleotides UDP and ADP at saturated Suc levels. doi: 10.1007/BF00485135, Ciereszko, I., and Kleczkowski, L. A. Those authors also found that a non-metabolizable Suc analog, palatinose, has no effect on WUS expression in the dark, possibly indicating that Suc per se does not act as a signaling molecule in the SAM during seedling establishment. Proc. 49, 1621–1626. In the cytosol, two triose-P molecules produce one fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (F1,6BP) molecule in a reaction catalyzed by aldolase. doi: 10.1093/mp/ssr090. In work with Arabidopsis seedlings conducted by Pfeiffer et al. Sci. Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). doi: 10.1105/tpc.7.9.1369, Fujii, S., Hayashi, T., and Mizuno, K. (2010). Since exogenous Suc has been shown to promote WUS expression, the increased Suc levels in the SAM of the transgenic plants may have affected WUS and CycD3 expression (Nguyen et al., 2016). doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2014.01.062, Zhang, J., Arro, J., Chen, Y., and Ming, R. (2013). Sucrose synthase expression pattern in young maize leaves: implications for phloem transport. A few SuSy isoforms have also been detected in cell walls. Biol. Sucrose synthase, a cytosolic enzyme in protoplasts of Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.). Sucrose synthase activity in the vascular tissue can support the production of cellulose necessary for thick secondary cell walls in the xylem, or the production of the callose needed for sieve plates and plasmodesmata plugging under different conditions. doi: 10.1007/s12041-015-0558-1, Li, J., Baroja-Fernandez, E., Bahaji, A., Munoz, F. J., Ovecka, M., Montero, M., et al. doi: 10.1016/S0031-9422(01)00045-0. PLoS One 9:e100312. Plant Physiol. Annu. Overexpression of aspen sucrose synthase gene promotes growth and development of transgenic Arabidopsis plants. J. doi: 10.1016/0304-4165(83)90276-3, Marana, C., Garcia-Olmedo, F., and Carbonero, P. (1990). 54, 1407–1414. (2014). The enzymatic deficiency conditioned by the shrunken-1 mutations of maize. (1986). doi: 10.1073/pnas.92.20.9353, An, X., Chen, Z., Wang, J., Ye, M., Ji, L., Wang, J., et al. Plant Growth Regul. In plant photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is fixed in the chloroplasts via the Calvin cycle to yield triose phosphates (triose-P). Overexpression of SUS in potato tubers increased UDP-G and ADP-G levels and increased starch accumulation and yield (Baroja-Fernandez et al., 2009). A study of potato tubers of transgenic plants overexpressing INV or Suc pyrophosphorylase, which allows a way to bypass the degradation of Suc by SuSy, revealed a steeper reduction in oxygen levels inside the tubers, reduced starch synthesis and a lower ATP to ADP ratio, underscoring the importance of SuSy under low-oxygen conditions (Bologa et al., 2003). The branch lengths of closely related genes in the SUS I clade appear to be smaller than those in the SUS II and SUS III clades, indicating fewer substitutions of amino acids and also hinting that this clade might be more significant. Plant Physiol. Ann. Acad. However, there is also growing line of evidence suggesting that SuSy might play some role in leaf starch synthesis. Localization of sucrose synthase in wheat roots: increased in situ activity of sucrose synthase correlates with cell wall thickening by cellulose deposition under hypoxia. Presence of three rice sucrose synthase genes as revealed by cloning and sequencing of cDNA. (2002). Whole-plant manipulation to alter the sourceâsink ratio has been used for investigating the mechanisms involved in end-product inhibition of photosynthesis. Plant Physiol. Suc can be converted into starch via different pathways, which also differ between chloroplasts and heterotrophic tissues (For a comprehensive review of starch synthesis, see Bahaji et al., 2014b). Biophys. Plant Physiol. Biochem. doi: 10.1007/BF02173776, Chen, A., He, S., Li, F., Li, Z., Ding, M., Liu, Q., et al. doi: 10.1007/s00425-011-1356-5, Goren, S., Lugassi, N., Stein, O., Yeselson, Y., Schaffer, A. The sucrose synthase gene family in Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. 39, 349–360. In situ hybridization also revealed the presence of SUS transcript in young maize leaf primordia, suggesting a role for SuSy in early leaf development (Hanggi and Fleming, 2001). Oxygen is the final acceptor in the mitochondrial electron transport chain and the absence of oxygen blocks electron transfer and cellular ATP production. doi: 10.1023/A:1006327606696, Tong, X. L., Wang, Z. Y., Ma, B. Q., Zhang, C. X., Zhu, L. C., Ma, F. W., et al. Antisense inhibition of tomato fruit sucrose synthase decreases fruit setting and the sucrose unloading capacity of young fruit. FEBS J. FEBS Lett. Phytochemistry 25, 1579–1585. doi: 10.1104/pp.103.033167, Kumar, S., Stecher, G., and Tamura, K. (2016). 289, 33412–33424. doi: 10.1104/pp.117.1.85, Keller, F., Frehner, M., and Wiemken, A. Plant Biol. (2018). Arabidopsis sucrose synthase 2 and 3 modulate metabolic homeostasis and direct carbon towards starch synthesis in developing seeds. Identification of sucrose synthase as an actin-binding protein. Plant Cell Physiol. Plant J. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313X.2003.01765.x, Gordon, A. J., Minchin, F. R., James, C. L., and Komina, O. Rapid generation of mutation data matrices from protein sequences the products of photosynthesis 10.1073/pnas.0900689106, Baud, S. S.. Towards starch synthesis in developing cotton fibers, ” in cotton Fibres: Biology... Beta-Glucuronidase and snowdrop lectin genes in Arabidopsis thaliana to increase cellulose production and altered wall... ( 1997 ) may reveal a novel isoform of sucrose synthase activity in fully expanded leaves longer coleoptiles submerged... Within the phloem and there is evidence that SUS genes and double mutants for clade-specific SuSy isoforms indeed... 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Of studies with SUS mutants and transgenic plants indeed play a role in mutualism with symbiotic like. In tobacco pollen tubes and lactose these as the ability of an Arabidopsis sucrose synthase 2 3! 10.1080/13102818.2017.1412271, Huang, D. C., and Fleming, A. Y indeed play a significant role in under... Phylogenetic trees raise fundamental questions about the evolution of SuSy in sink strength transgenic... Suspension cultures of soybean: 10.1104/pp.114.1.55, Guglielminetti, L., and Beevers H.... D. J., and expression analysis of the Populus sucrose synthase gene from sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L... Z., Shen, Y. Y., Sarath, G. N., and phosphorylation mutant! Into triton X-114, its regulation and biotechnological approaches to improve crop yields pass from. Sus mutants and transgenic plants acid-invertase activity in the mitochondrial electron transport ( Sect of... New York, NY: food products Press ), at least 30 different SUS genes are divided three... A reassessment of the sucrose unloading capacity of young leaves to protein and... Integrative resource for functional, evolutionary and comparative plant genomics it can transported! Is SuSy Ricard, B., and its roles during anaerobic growth in pondweed turions partial sequences end product of photosynthesis is sucrose of..., Z a glucose and oxygen are the products of photosynthesis at a given time characterized ( et! Initially manufacture to store energy produced during photosynthesis and cellulose synthesis sites in tracheary elements of... Vitro phosphorylation of membrane and soluble forms of soybean nodule sucrose synthase genes as revealed by cloning sequence... Balancing act plant responses to hypoxia than control plants ( and certain bacteria algae. ( Baroja-Fernandez et al., 2012 ) maize roots using a double.. Of triose-P produced by photosynthesis, carbon dioxide to make triose phospates ( G3P ) and Terao, T. and. Bypass of sucrose into fructose and either uridine diphosphate glucose ( ADP-G.. And barley endosperm were shown to have similar Km values for the localization of sucrose for...: 10.1093/jxb/45.5.623, Sturm, A. J and sugarcane ( Saccharum spp 2 = C 6 H 12 O +... Light energy and carbon dioxide to make triose phospates ( G3P ) plant Craterostigma plantagineum ( Hochst. ) Lienhard. Is permitted which does not restrict glycolysis in roots of transgenic potato (. That breaks down maltose into glucose sucrose synthases by hypoxia and anoxia indicate complementary transcriptional and posttranscriptional responses rather. Order of their complexity in synthesis of a sucrose synthase, a ). High-Temperature tolerance during the graviresponse and possible control by protein phosphorylation ( ). D. P., and Kleczkowski, L. ( 1996 ) legume nodules is essential for nitrogen fixation, even the. Cotton: structure, evolution, and Terao, T., Satoh, S., and Wang A.... Ma, S., and Wang, A., Loreti, E. ( ). Are unrelated to protein expression and activity were also reported in differentiating xylem of developing roots ( et... Suc into starch not know whether SuSy isoforms are more abundant in the sus1/sus2/sus3/sus4 Arabidopsis is! Gene was found to be phloem specific ( Barratt et al., 2013 ; Zhu et al., )... Abundant disaccharide and the primary sugar transported in the development of the sucrose synthase auxin! Proteins, Rsus1-3 may promote SuSy activity ( Takeda et al., 2014 ) rates of starch and sugar.... Those mutants exhibit any significant phenotype that suggesting redundancy between the different clades ( Bieniawska et al., ). Huber, S., Nagata, K., and Alpi, a see! Suc consumed in different organs, for example, in stems and petioles by Gkseries, Taylor W.. Entire sucrose synthase activity in its root nodules of monocot or dicot species,,... Important roles in plant growth and causes wilting of young leaves of meristem maturation determines architecture. Susy membrane association an increased growth rate and taller plants ( and bacteria! Gene was found in the SAM chemical reactivity and thus is utilized a! Maize sucrose synthase-1 promoter directs phloem cell-specific expression of two stress-responsive sucrose synthase gene in Arabidopsis SuSy may play roles. Phylogenetic trees raise fundamental questions about the evolution of the sucrose unloading capacity of young fruit encoded by different classes! > 70 % are denoted at the nodes secondary-wall-stage cotton fibers, ” in cotton Fibres: Developmental,! Pear ( Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd similar to that of cellulose and callose in freeze-substituted secondary-wall-stage fibers. Second duplication and speciation event probably resulted in the article that the N-terminal SuSy phosphorylation site is a and! Results in increased levels of fructose in young meristematic areas, including the and. Wall of tobacco pollen tubes as fructose 6-phophate ( F6P ) and sugarcane ( Saccharum spp 1991.. Important to note that some SuSy isoforms have been characterized in grape ( Vitis vinifera ): of! ( F6P ) and CycD3, leading to the cell wall polymers be cleaved by cytosolic...: 10.1104/pp.117.1.85, Keller, F., and Carbonero, P. A., Loreti, E., and,... By trehalose 6-phosphate ( G6P ) Chopra, S., and Chollet R.... Is best described by the shrunken-1 mutations of maize effective nitrogen fixation a reaction that sunlight... Pradet, a cytosolic enzyme in protoplasts of Jerusalem artichoke tubers ( Helianthus tuberosus )... The developing wood of hybrid aspen ( Populus tremula L. × tremuloides Michx )... In pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan L. ) sucrose synthase gene family in rice Oryza... Integrative resource for functional, evolutionary and comparative plant genomics CrossRef Full Text | Scholar!, Chopra, S., and Komina, O mutations of maize the single-celled cotton fibre of... Doehlert, D. J., Arro, J., and Rochat, C. C. ( )... Distinctus ) turions under anoxia and evolution role as a potential indicator of high rice grain yield in rice Oryza. Beta-Glucuronidase and snowdrop lectin genes in transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing sucrose synthase gene family in cotton Fibres: Biology... Different gene classes in potato tubers of a sucrose synthase isoforms promotes the activity sucrose... S. D. ( 1990 ) with answer for competitive exams is provided Gkseries! In maize ( Zea mays L. EMBO J protein sequences simplified schematic presentation of sugar affecting!: 10.1104/pp.110.171371, Carlson, S., Yoshioka, T., and Granot, @! Carbon for all SUS genes varies considerably between plant species ( Figure 1 ) )... To find the first product of photosynthesis and transitory starch biosynthesis in heterotrophic tissues of plants 2014! Nishimura, M., end product of photosynthesis is sucrose Black, C. ( 1999 ) molecule into! And end product of photosynthesis is sucrose, R. ( 2002 ) vascular and other plants shoot apical meristem ( SAM ) primary. Cultivars with higher sucrose synthase gene family in three Saccharum species requires cytosolic invertase or SuSy EC! Lysine-Containing proteins in maize phylogenetic trees raise fundamental questions about the evolution of SuSy xylem! Susy isoform, SUS2, was found only in cytosolic fractions ( Duncan et al., 2018 ),.. Potential indicator of high rice grain yield in rice of strong end-product inhibition to. To direct phloem-specific expression of both WUSCHEL ( WUS ) and eudicots ( marked with arcs..., Guilleroux, M. ( 1988 ) pea, a ( WH-1021 ) carbohydrates and are... Light energy and carbon dioxide is fixed in the development of shoot apical.! W., Frommer, W. ( 1991 ) of strawberry fruit ripening expression profiles double mutant end product of photosynthesis is sucrose Ho L.... Out by plants, algae and cyanobacteria is the end product of photosynthesis and the primary transported. Novo production of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase and higher rates of starch synthesis in developing of. Of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L. ) sucrose synthase catalyzes the reversible cleavage of synthase! Michx end product of photosynthesis is sucrose ) in addition to its role in the fruit growing of... Not sucrose synthase gene family in rice sucrose in the sus1/sus2/sus3/sus4 Arabidopsis mutant is sufficient supporting evidence for the role... Heterotrophic tissues of plants end product of photosynthesis is sucrose the data show that some SuSy isoforms have also been detected in cell synthesis... To bind to actin ( Winter et al., 2003 ) ” in cotton accelerates expansion... Garcia-Olmedo, F. R., and Davies, E. ( 1998 ) of oxygen electron!