Japan itself was still in the throes of the Sengoku or "Warring States" period, a century-long era of chaos and civil war among the different domains. , Koreans who fled gave alarm to the other garrisons, allowing the Japanese troops to easily capture Kilju County, Myongchon County, and Kyongsong County. The Ming leadership quickly pulled in many units stationed near its border with Korea. The Battle of Chilcheollyang was Japan's only decisive naval victory of the war.  Because Korean pottery was highly prized in Japan, many Japanese lords established pottery-producing kilns with captured Korean potters in Kyūshū and other parts of Japan. Japan's ultimate purpose was the invasion of Ming China.  Once the Japanese realized that they outnumbered the Chinese by six to one, they allowed the Chinese cavalry to spread out over the streets of Pyongyang and counter-attacked, using their superior numbers to annihilate the Chinese. The government was forced to trade rank and titles in order to obtain napsok of grain,  and the yangban elite, which was exempt from household taxes, exploited the occasion to increase its landholdings, thereby further depriving the central government of taxes raised on property.  One of their leading generals, Shi Ru, was killed in this engagement. A samurai, Yoshino Jingoze'emon wrote about the retreat: There was hardly a gap between the dead bodies that filled the surroundings of Matsuyama Caste [Mount Moranbong].  At least 8,000 monks responded to Hyujǔng's call, some out of a sense of Korean patriotism and others motivated by a desire to improve the status of Buddhism, which suffered discrimination from a Sinophile court intent upon promoting Confucianism. Some 700 boats offloaded three divisions of samurai soldiers, who rushed Busan's unprepared defenses and captured this major port in a matter of hours. , Japanese troops engaged in crimes against civilians in battles and often killed indiscriminately. In the fall of 1598, following the successful Japanese defense at the battles of Sacheon, Ulsan, and Suncheon, the Ming, Joseon, and Japanese forces were locked in a military stalemate in the south of the peninsula   After the death of Hideyoshi on September 18, 1598, the Council of Five Elders, in late October, issued orders for the withdrawal of all forces from Korea. . [ citation needed ], After the debacle in Chilcheollyang, King Seonjo immediately reinstated Yi Sun-sin.  Therefore, Yi Sun-sin ordered the fleet to feign withdrawal, which the Japanese commander, Wakisaka Yasuharu, observed from his tent on a rock. the Third Division, above), and cut left to Geumsan in Chungcheong, which Kobayakawa secured as his starting base for his invasion of the province. .  Since the cavalry consisted mostly of new recruits, however, Shin Rip was concerned that his troops may easily be tempted to flee the battle.  Yi once again followed his usual tactic of coming forward to challenge, then making a feigned retreat with the Japanese in hot pursuit before ambushing them on the open sea. According to Korean records, the Ming forces ran into the vanguard forces under Kuroda around the area of Jiksan. Angry that their king was deserting them, people along his flight path stole all of the horses from the royal party. However the battle marked the furthest point the Japanese ever got to reaching Hanseong during the Second Invasion.  However, as the Geumsan salient had taken three successive Korean attacks in a row in a single month, the 6th Division under Kobayakawa was pulled back as Hideyoshi decided the salient was not worth the trouble to hold it, and to the suffering people of the region that was all that mattered. Bunroku referring to the Japanese era name spanning the period from 1592 to 1596. , In Japan, referencing the official history of the Joseon, the result is presented as a strategic Japanese victory. Without any previous preparations or planning, Won Gyun then had his entire fleet sail towards Busan. The Battle of Busan of 1592 was a naval bombardment of anchored Japanese ships at Busan. Xing Jie decided to remove his emotionally weakened brother Li Rumei in favor of Dong Yi Yuan. Upon the start of the second invasion, the Ming emperor was furious about the entire debâcle of the peace talks and turned his wrath on many of its chief supporters; particularly Shi Xing, the Minister of War, who was removed from his position and jailed (he died several years later, in prison). In Korea, Gwak is remembered as an enigmatic, romantic hero.  In 1592, Hideyoshi sent a letter to the Philippines demanding tribute from the Spanish governor general and stating that Japan had already received tribute from Korea (which was a misunderstanding) and the Ryukyus. The forces at Sacheon and Ulsan continued to be engaged in a military deadlock in the months that followed.  In many ways the invasions proved to be more devastating than any other event in the nation's history (even, arguably, more so than the Korean War). Both men contributed greatly to unifying Japan, and the economic and military power this put into the hands of Hideyoshi proved all too tempting. The Ming government withdrew most of its expeditionary force, but kept 16,000 men on the Korean peninsula to guard the truce. Furthermore, you should certainly see to it that those person departing [for Korea] understand this situation.  There, General Yi moved all troops back to Sangju, except for the survivors of the Battle of Dongnae who were to be stationed as a rearguard at the Choryong pass. The two sides remained at a stalemate between the Kaesong to Hanseong line for the next couple of months, with both sides unable and unwilling to commit to further offensives. The first three were captured and sent directly to Beijing by Chinese troops, but the fourth one, in 1601, successfully obtained from the Joseon court the promise of a normalizing of relations upon the return of remaining Joseon captives.  All 88 sailors of the Japanese ship were killed, and Yi had their ears cut off to be "salted and packed in a box for shipment to the court". 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