"Pope Sixtus IV." The Medici weren't the only famous family of the Italian Renaisssance. The Vatican has its plans for the Medici family, however, seeing as Pope Sixtus IV was one of the people behind the scenes during the Pazzi conspiracy. In 1410, for example, Baldassare Cossa borrowed 10,000fl. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. His bronze funerary monument, now in the basement Treasury of St. Peter's Basilica, made like a giant casket of goldsmith's work, is by Antonio Pollaiuolo. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Sixtus-IV, Web Gallery of Art - Biography of Sixtus IV. An assassination attempt on Pope Sixtus IV led to the excommunication of the House of Medici from the Catholic Church and the declaration of holy war on the city of Florence in 1478. In his territorial aggrandizement of the Papal States, his niece's son Cardinal Raffaele Riario, for whom the Palazzo della Cancelleria was constructed, was suspected of colluding in the failed Pazzi conspiracy of 1478 to assassinate both Lorenzo de' Medici and his brother Giuliano and replace them in Florence with Sixtus IV's other nephew, Girolamo Riario. ... Sixtus I Saint Sixtus Xystus Primus Rome or Greece 125 to 136/138 Telesphorus Saint Telesphorus ... Giovanni Angelo Medici Milan, Italy 7 January 1566 to 1 May 1572 Pius V, O.P. 14. Nevertheless, Sixtus IV quarrelled over protocol and prerogatives of jurisdiction; he was unhappy with the excesses of the Inquisition and condemned the most flagrant abuses in 1482. The Pazzi conspiracy shocked Florence, as it had been approved by the Pope himself, Sixtus IV. Above all, he was a founder or restorer of important institutions and a patron of arts and letters. Becoming a Franciscan, he subsequently taught and was chosen minister general of his order in 1464. Pope Sixtus's tomb was destroyed in the Sack of Rome in 1527. Pope Sixtus IV. Sometime after this transition occurred, Pope Sixtus IV of the Della Rovere family erected several new structures, including a new papal chapel that was named the Sistine.  Six of the thirty-four cardinals that he created were his nephews.. Pope Sixtus IV was the 212th Pope, whose 13 years long papacy was embroiled in controversies and internal wars.  Vol. Around the sides are bas-relief panels depicting allegorical female figures representing Grammar, Rhetoric, Arithmetic, Geometry, Music, Painting, Astronomy, Philosophy and Theology—the classical liberal arts, with the addition of painting and theology. 2014, "Sisto IV (1414-1484)", Palazzo-Medici Riccardi. Neither a crusader nor curial politician, Sixtus aimed at the aggrandizement of his family and of the Papal States, subordinating his duties as the churchâs spiritual head in a manner characteristic of his era. The Pope created 34 cardinals in eight consistories held during his reign, among them three nephews, one grandnephew and one other relative, thus continuing the practice of nepotism that he and his successors would engage in during this period. They were one of the first banks to implement double-entry bookkeeping and â thanks to the size of their banking network â they could issue credit across the continent at a time when money lending was a sin. From the Catholic Encyclopedia ... even had Florence under interdict because it rose in fury against the conspirators and brutal murderers of Giuliano de' Medici. Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 August 1471 to his death. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario, who resented Lorenzo deâ Mediciâs efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna, a region in north-central Italy, and also the archbishop of Pisa, Francesco Salviati, whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. Louis was thus in conflict with the papacy, and Sixtus could not permit it. In 1478, when Lorenzo the Magnificent was still a youth, he and his younger brother Guiliano were attacked in an assassination attempt by hired killers paid by the rival Pazzi and Salviati families, also Florentine bankers. .  His reputation for piety was one of the deciding factors that prompted the College of Cardinals to elect him Pope upon the unexpected death of Paul II at the age of fifty-four.. Posts about pope sixtus IV written by S. On 26th April 1478 the ruler of Florence Lorenzo de Medici made his way through his city to the grand Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore â more commonly known as The Duomo thanks to the great dome that topped the imposing structure. Updates? In ecclesiastical affairs, Sixtus promoted the dogma of the Immaculate Conception, which had been confirmed at the Council of Basle in 1439, and he designated 8 December as its feastday.  For refusing to desist from the very hostilities that he himself had instigated and for being a dangerous rival to Della Rovere dynastic ambitions in the Marche, Sixtus placed Venice under interdict in 1483. Upon being elected Pope, Della Rovere adopted the name Sixtus, which had not been used since the 5th century. Sixtus had a great regard for his sister, known as Donna Camilla, who soon acquired a very influential position at court. Among the painters Lorenzo sponsored was Bottecilli. Its contents reveal that he conspired to overthrow the Medicisâ reign and that his co-conspirators included Pope Sixtus IV, the Popeâs nephew Gerolamo Riario, Archbishop Salviati, and â¦ He spent huge sums amassing a collection of art and antiquities, and built the magnificent Palazzo di Venezia in Rome. This included the right to establish the four traditional faculties of theology, law (Canon Law and Roman law), medicine, and philosophy, and to award the bachelor's, master's, licentiate, and doctoral degrees. In addition to being a patron of the arts, Sixtus was a patron of the sciences. Apart from meddling in feuds between the great Roman families, Sixtus IV committed himself rather scandalously to Veniceâs aggression against the duchy of Ferrara, which he incited the Venetians to attack (1482); their combined assault was opposed by Milan, Florence, and Naples. For three centuries, the Medici family, known by this logo, was one of the most powerful in Italy. The two papal bulls issued by Pope Nicholas V, Dum Diversas of 1452 and Romanus Pontifex of 1455, had effectively given the Portuguese the rights to acquire slaves along the African Coast by force or trade. Sixtus IV named seven new saints with the most notable being Bonaventure (1482); he also beatified one person: John Buoni (1483).  Although such accusations are easily dismissed as anti-Catholic propaganda, they still prompted the noted historian of the Catholic Church, Ludwig von Pastor, to issue a firm rebuttal.. Our editors will review what youâve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. He went on to lecture at Padua and many other Italian universities. For the archbishop, see, Bishops consecrated by Pope Sixtus IV as principal consecrator, On his premature death (1501), Giovanni entrusted his son, Raiswell, p. 469 see also "Black Africans in Renaissance Europe", p. 281, Sued-Badillo (2007), see also O'Callaghan, p. 287-310, Sten Lindroth. The envoy of the Medici family summed up Sixtus' reign in the announcement to his master 'Today at 5 o'clock His Holiness Sixtus IV departed this life-may God forgive him!' Out of this scandal and its counteraction, he justifiably managed to excommunicate Lorenzo, to put Florence under interdict, and to induce King Ferdinand I of Naples, the papacyâs ally, to declare a fruitless and inglorious war that kept Italy confused for two years. The choice of this location for the university derived from the fact that the archbishopric of Uppsala had been one of the most important sees in Sweden proper since Christianity first spread to this region in the ninth century, as well as Uppsala being long-standing hub for regional trade. Created by Nicholas Meyer, Frank Spotnitz. The Catholic Encyclopedia. The angered Italian princes allied to force Sixtus IV to make peace to his great annoyance. The first episode of Season 3 of 'Medici' begins with the Pope excommunicating Florence and its citizens until Lorenzo goes to him and apologizes for the death of Salviati. For the remainder of his pontificate, Sixtus turned to temporal issues and dynastic considerations. Already drained by his grandfather's building projects and constantly stressed by mismanagement, wars, and political expenses, the assets of the Medici Bank reduced seriously during the course of Lorenzo's lifetime. She had been a washerwoman, and some pasquinade having been circulated on the subject of the lady's past employment, the Pope offered 1000 sequins [p. 115] to the author with a promise of his life if he would come forward. The dedicatory inscription in the fresco by Melozzo da Forlì in the Vatican Palace records: "You gave your city temples, streets, squares, fortifications, bridges and restored the Acqua Vergine as far as the Trevi..." In addition to restoring the aqueduct that provided Rome an alternative to the river water, which had made the city famously unhealthy, he restored or rebuilt over 30 of Rome's dilapidated churches such as San Vitale (1475) and Santa Maria del Popolo, and he added seven new ones. , As a temporal prince who constructed stout fortresses in the Papal States, he encouraged the Venetians to attack Ferrara, which he wished to obtain for another nephew. Alessandro della Rovere, now Pope Sixtus IV ( July 21, 1414 â August 12, 1484), is portrayed by James Faulkner. 7. Maria della Pace); the Sistine Chapel is his principal monument. Pope Paul II (r. 1464â1471) The pontificate of Paul II was marked by pageantry, carnivals and colourful races. His efforts in 1474 and 1476 to reunite the Russian Church with Rome and to gain Russian support against the Turks were unsuccessful. The new pope Sixtus IV appoints a Pazzi kinsman archbishop of Pisa, with jurisdiction over Firenze, so the Medici plot to lock him out. Cosimo deâ Medici and Pope Sixtus IVâ¦ adoring the Infant Saviour. Saint Pius Pius Quintus: Michele Ghislieri , As a young man, Della Rovere joined the Franciscan Order, an unlikely choice for a political career, and his intellectual qualities were revealed while he was studying philosophy and theology at the University of Pavia. Pope Sixtus is portrayed by Raul Bova in the second season, and John Lynch in the third season of the TV series Medici: Masters of Florence. After the attack on the Medici family concluded with Lorenzoâs escape, the town revolted against the archbishop of Pisa, Francesco Salviati, who was one of those was had attacked Florence, and lynched him on the street. Sixtus IV, original name Francesco della Rovere, (born July 21, 1414, Cella Ligure, near Savona, Republic of Genoaâdied Aug. 12, 1484, Rome), pope from 1471 to 1484 who effectively made the papacy an Italian principality. In November 1476, Isabel and Fernando ordered an investigation into rights of conquest in the Canary Islands, and in the spring of 1478, they sent Juan Rejon with sixty soldiers and thirty cavalry to the Grand Canary, where the natives retreated inland. All of that was done to facilitate the integration of the Vatican Hill and Borgo with the heart of Old Rome. Omissions? Morris, Roderick Conway. His accomplishments as pope included the construction of the Sistine Chapel and the creation of the Vatican Archives. He established and richly endowed the first foundling hospital and repaired and built numerous Roman churches (including Sta. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. These outstanding achievements, however, were accomplished with heavy taxation and simony.  This act of Sixtus IV had a profound long-term effect on the society and culture of Sweden, an effect which continues up to the present. The Pazzi conspiracy was a real-life historical event, which saw the Pazzi family try to overthrow the Medicis in a plot sanctioned by Pope Sixtus IV (played in Medici by Raoul Bova).  The ecclesiastical penalties were directed towards those who were enslaving the recent converts.. He was born in Celle Ligure, a town near Savona. The Pope grew weaker during the night of 11 August and he was unable to sleep. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on â¦ He also refounded, enriched and enlarged the Vatican Library. That was part of a broader scheme of urbanization carried out under Sixtus IV, who swept the long-established markets from the Campidoglio in 1477 and decreed in a bull of 1480 the widening of streets and the first post-Roman paving, the removal of porticoes and other post-classical impediments to free public passage. In 1467, he was appointed Cardinal by Pope Paul II with the titular church being the Basilica of San Pietro in Vincoli. Each figure incorporates the oak tree ("rovere" in Italian), symbol of Sixtus IV. He finally absolved Lorenzo and removed the interdict. Pietro became one of the richest men in Rome and was entrusted with Pope Sixtus' foreign policy. Pope Sixtus IV died the following evening - 12 August. He felt unwell that evening and was forced to cancel a meeting he was to hold with his cardinals the following morning. In 1476, he issued the apostolic constitution Cum Praeexcelsa, establishing a Mass and Office for the feast. He formally annulled the decrees of the Council of Constance in 1478. His accomplishments as pope included building the Sistine Chapel and the creation of the Vatican Archives. Sixtus created an unusually large number of cardinals during his pontificate (23) who were drawn from the roster of the princely houses of Italy, France and Spain, thus ensuring that many of his policies continued after his death: Pope Sixtus is portrayed by Arthur Grosser in the short film Assassin's Creed: Lineage, a prequel to the video game Assassin's Creed II. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. He felt unwell that evening and was forced to cancel a meeting he was to hold with his cardinals the following morning.  Arguably the "ideology of conquest" expounded in those texts became the means by which commerce and conversion were facilitated.. Internet Archive, Ebooks and Texts. The top of the casket is a lifelike depiction of the Pope lying in state. This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 11:17. He granted many privileges to the mendicant orders, particularly to his own Franciscans. Cosimo deâ Medici of Florence and Pope Sixtus IV of Rome are examples of patrons who used âthe arts as an instrument of powerâ. Nepotism, too, was widespread. Francesco Salviati, Archbishop of Pisa and a main organizer of the plot, was hanged on the walls of the Florentine Palazzo della Signoria.  That was a cornerstone of the privileges claimed for the Gallican Church and could never be shifted as long as Louis XI manoeuvred to replace King Ferdinand I of Naples with a French prince. Those concessions were confirmed by Sixtus in his own bull, Aeterni regis, of 21 June 1481. Before he became pope, he had spent time at the very liberal and cosmopolitan University of Padua, which maintained considerable independence from the Church and had a very international character. From 1471 he was the second founder of the Vatican Library, which he opened for scholars. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The pope was cognizant of the plot, though probably not of the intention to assassinate, and even had Florence under interdict because it rose in fury against the conspirators and brutal murderers of Giuliano de' Medici. At the beginning of his papacy, in 1471, Sixtus had donated several historically important Roman sculptures that founded a papal collection of art, which would eventually develop into the collections of the Capitoline Museums. A political family drama set in Florence in the early fifteenth century. from Giovanni di Bicci deâ Medici to bribe his way to becoming Anti-pope John XXIII, and at the conclave of 1458, Cardinal Guillaume dâEstouteville promised to distribute a vast array of lucrative benefices to anyone who would vote for him, albeit in vain.  Sixtus consented under political pressure from Ferdinand of Aragon, who threatened to withhold military support from his kingdom of Sicily. Almqvist & Wiksell International (1976), Perie, The Triple Crown, Spring 1935 p.26, Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, Butler, Richard Urban. John Lynch (The Fall) has replaced Raoul Bova in the role of Pope Sixtus IV, while Rose Williams (Reign) has taken over the character of Caterina Sforza (previously played by Nicole Brugnoli). He commissioned such great artists as Sandro Botticelli and Antonio del Pollaiuolo and pensioned such eminent men of learning as Bartolomeo Platina. For those watching our recommended Medici documentary, Part II covers Lorenzoâs story. Sixtus IV soon abandoned universal interests, concentrating on Italian politics and revealing his confirmed nepotism. Sixtus founded the Spanish Inquisition through the bull Exigit sincerae devotionis affectus (1478), and he annulled the decrees of the Council of Constance. â¦Spanish Inquisition, established by Pope. He now entered upon a two years' war with Florence, and encouraged the Venetians to attack Ferrara, which he wished to obtain for his nephew Girolamo Riario. A pope who wanted reform could push the Counter-Reformation forward. , Francesco was born to a family of modest means from Liguria, Italy, the son of Leonardo della Rovere and Luchina Monleoni. In my previous post I pointed out that in Botticelliâs Uffizi version of the Adoration of the Magi, the figure of Joseph is leaning on a stone shelf which depicts Leonardo da Vinci as the head of the Great Sphinx. The envoy of the Medici family summed up Sixtus' reign in the announcement to his master 'Today at 5 o'clock His Holiness Sixtus IV departed this life-may God forgive him!' L orenzo the Magnificent (1449-1492) was the grandson of prestigious Cosimo deâ Medici, who we covered in yesterdayâs post.Lorenzo, in most respects, followed the Medici-patron formula during his time and should be highly regarded. The pope is the head of the Catholic Church. Concurrently, the ideal of the crusade against the Turks was dying. Sixtus IV sought to strengthen his position by surrounding himself with relatives and friends. A pope against any form of real reform could do the Counter-Reformation much harm. For hundreds of years historians have known the plot was largely engineered by Francesco de Pazzi, from a rival family of bankers, with an assist from Pope Sixtus IV, â¦ On 1 November 1478, Sixtus published the papal bull Exigit Sincerae Devotionis Affectus through which the Spanish Inquisition was established in the Kingdom of Castile. Becoming a Franciscan, he subsequently taught and was chosen minister general of his order in 1464. Paul III (pope from 1534 to 1549) was born â¦ With Daniel Sharman, Alessandra Mastronardi, Synnove Karlsen, Sebastian De Souza. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. However, after the conquest of Smyrna, the fleet disbanded. In a dramatic scene, the Pope was poisoned as he spoke to members of the Houses of Borgia and Medici, and quick medical assistance from an aide was able to save his life. , In 1464, Della Rovere was elected Minister General of the Franciscan order at the age of 50. A patron of the arts, he brought together the group of artists who ushered the Early Renaissance into Rome with the first masterpieces of the city's new artistic age. Sixtus IV became ill on 8 August 1484; this illness worsened on 10 August while the pope was attending an event in Rome.  He had Regiomontanus attempt the first sanctioned reorganisation of the Julian calendar and increased the size and prestige of the papal chapel choir, bringing singers and some prominent composers (Gaspar van Weerbeke, Marbrianus de Orto and Bertrandus Vaqueras) to Rome from the north. In 1477, Sixtus IV issued a papal bull, authorizing the creation of Uppsala University - the first university in Sweden and in the whole of Scandinavia. Sixtus's earlier threats to excommunicate all captains or pirates who enslaved Christians in the bull Regimini Gregis of 1476 could have been intended to emphasise the need to convert the natives of the Canary Islands and Guinea and establish a clear difference in status between those who had converted and those who resisted. He also lined the coffers of the state by unscrupulously selling high offices and privileges.. fifteenth century, the location of the Popeâs Roman residence had moved from the Lateran Palace to the Vatican. As Pope, he issued a papal bull allowing local bishops to give the bodies of executed criminals and unidentified corpses to physicians and artists for dissection. The archbishop of Uppsala was also named as the university's Chancellor, and was charged with maintaining the rights and privileges of the university and its members. Sixtus IVâs relations were strained with France, whose king Louis XI firmly upheld the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438), which had established the liberties of the French Church. His beneficiaries were members of his own family, whom he greatly enriched and who involved him in messy disputes, perhaps the worst of which was a conspiracy against Lorenzo (the Magnificent) deâ Medici. He formally annulled (1478) the decrees of the Council of Constance and condemned (1482) abuses in the Spanish Inquisition. He was also a noted theological writer and teacher who gave lectures at universities in Siena, Pavia, Padua, Florence and Bologna. Cosimo de Medici finds himself at the helm of his â¦ Before his papal election, Cardinal della Rovere was renowned for his unworldliness and had written learned treatises, including On the Blood of Christ and On the Power of God. Medici (TV Series 2016â2019) cast and crew credits, including actors, actresses, directors, writers and more. He is the presiding head of the Roman Catholic church, although his twin brother Francesco (imprisoned at Castel Sant'Angelo) is the true legitimate Pope. It was that access to corpses which allowed the anatomist Vesalius, along with Titian's pupil Jan Stephen van Calcar, to complete the revolutionary medical/anatomical text De humani corporis fabrica. On April 26, 1478, during mass at Florence cathedral, the agents of Girolamo Riario, Sixtus IVâs nephew, wounded Lorenzo and killed his brother, Giuliano, in a plot to overthrow the Medici. Guiliano was killed and Lorenzo was injured. Lorenzo, groomed for power, assumed a leading role in the state upon the death of his father in 1469, when he was 20. The Sistine Chapel was sponsored by Sixtus IV, as was the Ponte Sisto, the Sistine Bridge (the first new bridge across the Tiber since Antiquity) and the building of Via Sistina (later named Borgo Sant'Angelo), a road leading from Castel Sant'Angelo to Saint Peter. He was made cardinal in 1467 by Pope Paul II, whom he succeeded on Aug. 9, 1471. As a civic patron in Rome, even the anti-papal chronicler Stefano Infessura agreed that Sixtus should be admired. Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 â 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484. Pope Sixtus IV died the following evening - 12 August.  The English churchman and Protestant polemicist John Bale, writing a century later, attributed to Sixtus "the authorisation to practice sodomy during periods of warm weather" to the "Cardinal of Santa Lucia". Lorenzoâs father, Piero di Cosimo deâ Medici, was equally at the centre of Florentine life, chiefly as an art patron and collector, like his father Cosimo deâ Medici, who was one of the wealthiest men in Europe and the first member of the Medici family to combine running the Medici Bank with leading the Republic of Florence.Lorenzoâs mother, Lucrezia Tornabuoni, was a writer of sonnets and a friend to poets and philosophers of the Mediâ¦ Sixtus continued a dispute with King Louis XI of France, who upheld the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438), which held that papal decrees needed royal assent before they could be promulgated in France. Today, his remains, along with the remains of his nephew Pope Julius II (Giuliano della Rovere), are interred in St. Peter's Basilica, in the floor in front of the monument to Pope Clement X. Pope Sixtus is portrayed by James Faulkner in the historical fantasy Da Vinci's Demons as having an identical twin, Alessandro. , "Francesco della Rovere" redirects here. Corrections? "Variations of Popery", Samuel Edgar D.D. None of them actually states how he died. Among the most important of these was that the university was officially given the same freedoms and privileges as the University of Bologna. A History of Uppsala University: 1477-1977. The overall program of the panels, their beauty, complex symbolism, classical references and their relative arrangement are compelling and comprehensive illustrations of the Renaissance worldview. The series implies that many of the more unsavoury parts of Sixtus' reign were really the work of his evil twin, who was out to gain power for himself. In 1478 took place the famous conspiracy of the Pazzi, planned by the pope's nephew â Cardinal Rafael Riario â to overthrow the Medici and bring Florence under the Riarii. However, Pietro died prematurely in 1474, and his role passed to Giuliano Della Rovere. In the fresco by Melozzo da Forlì, he is accompanied by his Della Rovere and Riario nephews, not all of whom were made cardinals; the protonotary apostolic Pietro Riario (on his right), the future Pope Julius II/ Giuliano Della Rovere standing before him; and Girolamo Riario and Giovanni della Rovere, behind the kneeling Platina, author of the first humanist history of the popes. Maria del Popolo and Sta. Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, was allied with the Sforzas of Milan, the Medicis of Florence along with the King of Naples, normally a hereditary ally and champion of the papacy. Lorenzo is patient with his unsophisticated but well-meaning bride Clarice and arranges for protege painter Sandro Botticelli to get his ideal model Beatrice to sit for a portrait at the Medici's expense.  However, Infessura had partisan allegiances to the Colonna and so is not considered to be always reliable or impartial. A marble tombstone marks the site. In 1480 Lorenzo boldly made peace with Ferdinand, despite Sixtus, who maintained war between the papacy and Florence. Shortly after the true Pope Sixtus, Francesco, was elected on conclave, Alessandro usurped the Holy See and had his brother locked up in Castel Sant'Angelo.  His nephew Pietro Riario also benefited from his nepotism. Although Sixtus endorsed the plot, he did not approve of assassination. Pope Sixtus IV died the following evening - 12 August. "When Sixtus IV Needed a Painter", "Daniel Sharman and Bradley James Join Netflix's 'Medici' (EXCLUSIVE)", International Alliance of Catholic Knights, Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart, Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII, Pope Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, The Creation of the Sun, Moon, and Plants, Restoration of the Sistine Chapel frescoes, Brothers and Sisters of Penance of Saint Francis, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pope_Sixtus_IV&oldid=991308161, Ministers General of the Order of Friars Minor, Articles with Italian-language sources (it), Articles lacking reliable references from August 2012, Pages using S-rel template with ca parameter, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 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